Styles of Aquarium

Many creative styles have been made for aquariums, and the possibilities can almost be as limitless as one’s imagination. Fish aquarium tanks have been made into the shapes of sinks, coffee tables, and even toilet bowls. There has even been an aquarium made in the shape of an Apple computer, which was fondly named MacQuarium. Such custom-made aquariums can and do cost up to more than a hundred thousand dollars. They have turned into status symbols of the upper class.
Fish aquarium tanks can be as small as a simple glass bowl containing less than a pint of water, or they can be large public enclosures that are able to sustain entire aquatic ecosystems like kelp forests. Simple fish bowls having no filters or any other similar mechanisms are now generally considered unfit for keeping most species of fish. Advanced aquarium and fish keeping technology have deemed this to be so, with suitable fish aquarium tanks having at least three kinds of filtration: chemical, mechanical and biological.
As an example , delicate and fragile animals like jellyfish can be kept in aquariums that have been designed with circular shapes. One such tank is the kreisel tank. It is designed to have circular and slow flowing water with the barest of hardware inside the tank. Kreisel is a German word meaning spinning top. A kreisel aquarium does not have any sharp corners, pumps or other aquarium hardware inside it, in order to prevent injury to the animals. The gentle flow of the water inside the tank keeps the animals suspended, and the area where water is pumped out of the tank has a delicate screen cover to avoid the animals from being stuck.
There are several types of kreisel tanks. A real kreisel has a circular lid that is submerged. A pseudokreisel has the surface of its bottom curved, while the top surface is flat. This gives it a semicircular or U shape. Langmuir or stretch kreisel tanks have a double-gyred design, in which the length of the tank is at least two times its height. Both sides of the aquarium have one down-welling inlet each, which allows gravity to produce double gyres. An optional down-welling inlet at the middle is also sometimes present.
A stretch kreisel may have a lidded or open top. Screens can be placed midway down its sides or on the top sides. Stretch kreisel designs also have combinations of these features. For example, a circular tank without a lid lets the water surface contribute to the circular flow. Such kreisel tank designs let households easily keep jellyfishes just as they would regular fish.
Biotope aquaria are also a type of aquarium that is quite popular. Biotope aquaria simulate specific natural environments, examples of which include Lake Victoria or the Amazon River. Their elements such as the plants, fish, wood, rocks, and substrate match the particular environment that they are mimicking. Biotope aquaria are quite difficult to successfully create, and these will often have just one or a few species of fish and other invertebrate animals.

LED Aquarium Lighting – Worth It?

 

As everyone who has had some experience with reef tanks knows, lighting is one of the most important aspects that can make or break your tank. A few things to consider:

Depth of the tank
LEDs, LED quality, power, optics
Metal halides, size, power
T5, Size power bulbs
What type of corals
The placement of the corals

Which one prevails is highly dependent of a number of variables, including those mentioned above.

T5s work great, many use them with excellent growth and results from sps to softies, the same can be said for metal halides.

LEDS are a relatively new product in reefing but again, same thing people have tons of success with them. What this comes down to is budget and what your plans are for the tank.

You can buy 2 bulb T5s that wont grow much or you can buy a 6 bulb that grows everything.

T5s are middle of the cost spectrum. They work well, have a fairly low energy cost and only need to be replaceds every six months to a year.

Metal halides give a very nice shimmer effect, but the running cost certainly makes this a luxury because they use a lot of energy. They also generate a relatively large amount of heat, to the point where it’s possible you will need a chiller but the bulbs only need be replaced every 5 months. Most people know they are highly capable with corals.

LED Aquarium lighting are the new kid on the block. Many people are using them these days and the equipement itself is improving in quality.  Like with all advancement in technology there will be sceptics, but for every sceptic there are others who are having fantastic results with LED Aquarium lighting. They aren’t cheap but have a very low running cost and longevity.

Resources:

LED Aquarium Lighting

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q6VwuhTVPTg

http://www.aquarium-lighting-guide.com/

Tips for using Seachem to Maintain Your Tanks Parameters

Seachem Acid Buffer

We suggest utilizing the Alkaline Buffer along with the Acid Buffer for this reason. These buffers are designed to be utilized in conjunction with each other in order to provide buffering, but also to target a desirable pH. You may use them in accordance with the ratios listed on the bottle. To reach a pH of 6.5, you might need to use the ratio of 1:1.3 (Acid:Alkaline). To accomplish this use the following process.

First determine the right dosage for the Alkaline Buffer for your own size aquarium. Now, to be able to maintain the ratio at 1:1.3, you just divide that 1 teaspoon by 1.3. Remember that you might need to-do this frequently for many days to be able to create a buffer system in your aquarium. Once you’ve stabilized your aquarium water, you need to just must include the buffers at water changes.

 

Seachem Ammonia Alert

They aren’t meant to be the ONLY indication of ammonia that you use. You still have to utilize the liquid tests on a usual basis. I’ve noted that each and every time I have ammonia show up with the liquid test there is a subtle change of shade on the Ammonia Alert. Once I changed this I have had no further troubles. When I have had a problem with any equipment, I regularly notify the maker and make them talk to me about my particular scenario and normally we find the issue.

 

Seachem Clarity

Clarity is totally safe for use with shrimps and inverts. It is necessary to utilize Clarity with fine mechanical filtration because Clarity actually makes the particulates larger, enabling them to be more easily filtered from the body. Immediately after adding the Clarity, your water will cloud (because is a flocculating agent). Clarity. It can stay this way for some hours, typically no more than 18 to 24 in extraordinary cases. So far as I can tell, Superge is a glass cleaner. The Lucidity will work for truly clearing biological and particulate matter within the tank.

Purigen is chemical filtration media that removes organic nitrogenous waste; it does so by nitrate, nitrite, and controlling ammonia. As for regeneration, just use unscented household bleach, following the directions just as stated on the bottle.

 

Seachem Denitrate

In my experience with this item it takes about 2 weeks to reduce the Nitrates in my 5-5 gallon reef tank from 18ppm to the 45ppm Nitrate goal amount. In case you are late changing the De – Nitrate, and they spike, you find yourself doing water changes waiting 2 weeks for it to work – and to get under 20 ppm before reloading the merchandise. THEREFORE. replace the De-Nitrate on time to keep low levels! I plan to keep using De – Nitrate as a bonus makes running my carbon canister unnecessary, and because in the long run it’s powerful, safe for clams. It costs me about $3 a month with no regeneration cycles needed, so it’s less hassle than some of the alternatives I looked at… IN the event you usually replace the product promptly and keep a great flow running through it.

Yes, I would recommend the product to my buddies.

 

Seachem Equilibrium

From my experience talking to the average hobbyist around here, most people swear by the Seachem line of products. I like to use CSM+B with some additions for magnesium and a more bioavailable iron source. To be honest, calcium deficiency isn’t a problem I’ve ever observed before; at a blind shot in the dark I’d say maybe the magnesium is switching out for it, or feeding provides enough.

 

Seamchem Flourish

I’d like to urge Seachem Flourish Products to everyone who owns or wishes to begin a planted aquarium.
None of my tanks run a CO2 system, but since I started using Flourish Excel in addition to all the other Flourish products two years ago I have found excellent results.
These products are outstanding for fighting off algae and for maximising plant growth. (Flourish Excel in particular)

The other useful Seachem products include; Flourish Potassium, Flourish, Flourish Nitrogen and Flourish Phosphorus. I highly recommend the utilization of Flourish and Flourish Excel in combination with the Potassium, Nitrogen and Phosphorus products.

 

Seamchem Matrix

I can only expect the advantages would be what Seachem has said in that its a superior biomedia, but I like that it’s smaller than bio-needles and ceramic tubes, particularly plastic balls, therefore it has a tendency to fill media baskets better, there’s much more media say per inch, I just recently shifted my fish to a fresh tank, went half of my Matrix from one tank for the other with new Matrix as well and its safe to say after 3 or 4 weeks I’ve seen almost no Ammonia or nitrites despite being stocked drastically with fish and the new Matrix was colonized very fast.

 

Seamchem Neutral Regulator

You are able to increase your low gh with Epsom Salt (MGS04), maybe 1/2 teaspoons at-a time. GH is largely plant food, whereas KH increases your water’s capability to resist ph swings, always a great thing. Each time ph changes a number of tenths of a spot or more, our fish must readjust portion of the basic metabolism in response. Fish can adjust and prosper in a ph which is other than their so called “best” value, provided it is kept constant. As you try to lower it when it is excessive the same thing may then occurr in the other direction. Enough of this bouncing ph and you might find sick or dead fish. Do not think you would want to get caught up in this. Simply let your fish adjust to the water you have.

 

Seamchem Paraguard

Cupramine is superb as a remedy for ich or velvet. Very affective and I have seen no issues with copper sensitive fish or destroying valuable bacteria. BUT I wouldn’t use it on live rock unless you are prepared for the possibility of never putting corals in. Also any calcerous substrate (rock or sand) will absorb Cupramine so frequent testing and additions of Cupramine will be needed.

 

Seamchem Phosguard

A good value, the beads are best used in smaller amounts and changed often (i.e., with water change). Place beads in a small net bag in a higher flow sump area. Important : because unrinsed beads can harm corals rinse beads before use. (Rinsing will generate a modest amount of heat.) The absorbed phosphate is not going to leach back to the water.

Pros
(1) Easy to use : , and this bag it, rinse place in high flow volume part of sump.
(2) Cleans up the diatom phosphate and silicate high bloom and other difficulties..
(3) Stores easily until desired.

Disadvantages
(1) Some talk about aluminum oxide used for better phosphate absorption and while it can discharge aluminum to hard corals. Seachem documents with a study that no leaching occurs at pH around 8.0.
(2) Not-for use in phosphate buffered freshwater
(3) Decide whether to use small amount and judge the water quality visually or use a phosphate kit to quantify results.

 

mandarin

Seamchem Prime

Seachem Prime is a dechlorinator, which you need every time you add (tap)water to the tank.

Most ‘bacteria-in-a-bottle’ products only work some of the time at best. Biomature and Seachem Stability appear to be the best. I know from experience that Biomature (previously called Seamature) does usually work. It adds ammonia and bacteria.

Nutrafin Cycle supposedly includes bacteria, and this and a number of other similar items are suggested to be used every time-you do a water change. It is completely unnecessary, when you are doing a water change as no bacteria are lost.

So yes, typically the only chemicals you ever need to add to your tank are a dechlorinator whenever you add water, and ammonia in some form whenever you cycle the filter.

 

Seamchem Purigen

Regeneration: Soak in a 1:1 bleach:water solution for twenty four hours in a non metalic container in-a well-ventilated area and away from children. Rinse well, then soak for 8 hours with a solution containing 2 tablespoons of ChlorGuard, Prime, or equivalent dechlorinator per cup of water. Rinse well. First color and full activity should now be restored and Purigen is prepared for re-use. Caution : some slime coat products may eternally defile render regeneration and Purigen difficult. Do not reuse if scent of chlorine is detectable. Just in case of uncertainty, soak beads in little amount of water and test for remaining chlorine with a chlorine test kit.

 

Seamchem Stability

So, as long as you are using Stability daily for 7 days and Prime every 48 hours through the entire cycling procedure, then there’s no reason that you can’t change all of your fish at once. To give an example to you, when we moved into our new facility, we needed to create a tank very rapidly for our ribbon cutting ceremony. We introduced over 100 cichlids into a 265-gallon aquarium, used Stability and Prime as I’ve advised you to-do so, and did not lose a single fish.

 

New Information on the Hammerhead Shark Published

Study published in a current problem of the Journal of Experimental Biology might have solved the enigma of why hammerhead sharks have such odd-shaped heads.

One theory suggests that the broadly set eyes provide the sharks better binocular vision, scientific opinion that have been sharply divided by an issue for years.

Michelle McComb, Timothy Tricas and Stephen Kajiura examined this theory by evaluating the visual areas of three hammerhead species: the bonnethead shark, (Sphyrna tiburo), scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) and the winghead shark (Eusphyra blochii), with that of two ordinary shark species: the orange shark (Negaprion brevirostris) and the blacknose shark (Carcharhinus acronotus).

Copyright © Barry Peters, Creative Commons

The writers put devices on the shark’s skin to measure its mind exercise when beams of sunshine were shone from various places around the tank; they additionally measured eye turn and mind yaw to ascertain if the sharks pay for big blind places before the top.

The results suggest that the area of binocular vision was around four occasions greater in hammerhead sharks than in ordinary sharks: the anterior binocular overlap of the orange and blacknose sharks were 10 and 11 degrees respectively, while those of the bonnethead, scalloped hammerhead and winghead sharks were 13, 34 and 48 degrees respectively.

These outcomes suggest that the higher the sideways growth of the mind, the bigger the binocular field of vision (bonnethead sharks have the lowest sideways expansion of the mind and winghead sharks the greatest).

For more details, see the newspaper: McComb, DM, TC Tricas and SM Kajiura (2009) Increased visual areas in hammerhead sharks. Journal of Experimental Biology 212, pp.
4010–4018.

Weird Fish of the Week: Plough-Nosed Chimaera

Copyright © Bill Boyle/OceanwideImages.com

This week’s bizarre fish candidate definitely fits the bill, particularly if the buy they participate in is the Chimaeriformes, which essentially means as “creature shaped”…

Callorhinchus milii, more generally referred to as the Plough-nosed chimaera or Ghosting shark, is surely an unusual looking beast, as are all the Chimaera types which are believed to be one of the earliest organizations of fish living nowadays, with an ancestry heading right back over 400 million years.

The source of Callorinchus millii’s common title is as basic because the nostril on its encounter — the point of its rostrum is prolonged into an unusual, garbled club-like structure. Actually provided the etymology of its order’s name the family’s name “Callorhinchus” comes from the Greek for “amazing snout”. This peculiar proboscis is protected with physical follicles with which the fish may find the feeble electric areas and motion of possible prey hidden within the seabed as it beginnings around for meals which commonly includes seafood and little crustaceans which are smashed up from the fish’s tooth plates.

They are a cartilaginous fish, related to sharks and also to some degree reveal an identical physique but with some obvious variations. They have enlarged pectoral fins which they flap in a wing-like fashion for swimming comparable to rays instead of making use of their tails.

The first of the two dorsal fins is house to some big venomous spine which can be used defensively. The chimaera’s body is sleek and scale-less with an attractive silvery white metal background colouration, punctuated by dark smears.

Its big, green eyes indicate its natural environment that is generally at depths of over 200m off the mild shorelines of Australia and New Zealand in the South-west Pacific.

They do nevertheless come in to superficial water to breed with women installing big, flattened, leatherlike eggs onto the ocean bed. Darken and these eggs solidify in while the embryo color develops. Grownup Plough-nosed chimaeras can reside to 15 years and increase to around 125cm/4′. Despite being truly a well known food fish in chip and fish restaurants in Sydney and New Zealand, their populace stays constant and the species is not regarded as in danger. Callorhinchus milii has been the topic of substantial medical research with its genome being planned. It’s expected this function may aid further knowledge of the development of vertebrates, as the chimaera and both individuals reveal a common ancestor from 450 thousand years ago.

Lowering pH with Seachem Acid Buffer

I’ll talk about how to lower ph using Seachem Acid Buffer and Alkaline Buffer. Other items are phosphate based, which is fertilizer for algae.

 

Preparing your equipment, you will need the following:
-Seachem Acid and Alkaline Buffer
-5 gallon bucket (40L approx) or mixing container
-pH tester, preferably an electronic one if possible
-water mixer, airstone or water pump

STEP 1: First, determine if you can use 100% tap water or not. If your KH is around 4 or less and GH is less than 10, you should be fine to use your tap water to mix/lower pH. Initial tap water pH is not as important because of the low KH. (Low KH = easy to adjust pH; High KH = hard to adjust pH)

If your tap water does not fit these requirements, you can mix R/O water and tap water to reach a mixture with a low KH. 

Tap Water:
pH = 8.0
GH = 11
KH = 15

2 gallons tap : 3 gallons R/O
pH = 7.13
KH = 4

So now that you have your tap:R/O mix ratio, you can add Acid Buffer to reach your desired pH, allowing time for pH to stabilize.

STEP 2: Desired pH = 6.0, starting pH = 7.8
Added 1/4 tsp Acid Buffer: pH = 7.3
Added 1/4 tsp Acid Buffer: pH = 7.3
Added 1/2 tsp Acid Buffer: pH = 5.5 STOP!
Total: 1 tsp Acid Buffer

Let the water mix. pH rebound to 6.9

STEP 3: simply repeat Step 2. Desired pH = 6.0, starting pH = 6.9
Added 1/4 tsp Acid Buffer: pH = 5.8
Rebounded to 6.5
Added 1/4 tsp Acid Buffer: pH CRASHED! drop in pH, pH = 4.3
Total: 1/2 tsp Acid Buffer

STEP 4: Slowly add Alkaline Buffer to bring pH back up to desired level. Be careful not to exceed the target, as you are essentially adding KH and all the previous steps would have been for nothing.
Added 1/8 tsp Alkaline Buffer: pH = 5.1
Added 1/8 tsp Alkaline Buffer: pH = 5.8 STOP!
Fine tune to reach desired pH level.
Total 1/4 tsp Alkaline Buffer

Conclusion: So after testing the water and playing around with the buffers, the following can be used to lower pH:

Starting pH = 7.8 —> Desired pH = 6.0
2 gallons tap water : 3 gallons R/O water
1.5 tsp Acid Buffer
1/4 tsp Alkaline Buffer

You can manipulate these numbers to calculate the total required for larger tank sizes. Also, keep in mind that substrate/hardscape plays a role in lowering/raising pH.

New Tank Setup

What’s new tank syndrome?

New tank syndrome as its title implies is an ailment which largely although not completely affects new fish aquariums. When there are inadequate micro-organisms present to handle the quantity of fish inventory in the aquarium it happens. The bacteria required to break down all the wastes created by fish can take many weeks to colonise a new aquarium and if fish are added before the bacteria are present in adequate amounts then the amounts of ammonia and nitrite will climb, when this occurs the tank is considered struggling with new tank syndrome. If you are setting up a new tank you may want to have a look at this article here.

What occurs when you setup an aquarium

Once all of the gear is in position and the water continues to be added everything may appear quite clear and obvious, even when you completed some water assessments the results might demonstrate that there’s no ammonia or nitrite present. This looks well suited for the fish but this is not even close to being the case.

Within a day the container may most likely move very nebulous, that is nothing and standard to be worried about. The cloudiness is due to a growth of microorganisms in the water line which have increased quickly and to manipulate all the nutrients in the water. In just a few more times the water may free from its own agreement so long as you do not do something.

To go onto the next phase ammonia will need to be put into the tank, just leaving the container to remain without including any ammonia or a supply of ammonia for weekly, three days or a few months will accomplish nothing regardless of period it is left.

How you can avoid new tank syndrome

The only real method to prevent new tank syndrome is to period or develop the tank before any live inventory is added. This post isn’t about cycling a container so I’ll not get into to much depth but complete particulars on cycling a tank are available here.

To start the cycling procedure you have to include both ammonia or a supply of ammonia. There are three fundamental means to achieve this

1. Add some household ammonia.
2. Add some fish food or an item of prawn, fish etc which may ultimately break down and generate ammonia.
3. Use a business item which provides ammonia in an exact method and includes complete instructions.

A certain species of bacteria will start to colonise the filtration and they may oxidise the ammonia and transform it into nitrite once ammonia is existing. Quickly all the ammonia may be converted into nitrite as soon as it’s created and the cycling procedure will be partially full.

Therefore it still isn’t safe to include any animals just yet nitrite is still quite poisonous to fish. When the ammonia has evaporated and the nitrite stage has grown another species of bacteria may start to colonise the filtration and every other accessible area within the aquarium where there’s clean well oxygenated water.
Once these bacteria can be found in adequate amounts the stage will begin to drop and when your check package no longer registers any nitrite the container is pumped, this 2nd types of bacteria will oxidise the nitrite and transform it in to nitrate.

The container may continue to mature within the following couple of months and before this occurs all animals should be added gradually therefore that nitrite and ammonia spikes are prevented, it will be completely mature between six to 12 months.

How to cope with new tank syndrome

Unfortunately folks are nevertheless occasionally provided bad guidance and informed that when the tank is left to remain for some times it may be safe to include bass, IT WON’T and this is when new tank syndrome is most likely to happen.

After the bass have been in the container for a couple times the ammonia level may have grown because the fish are a supply of ammonia and there are insufficient bacteria present to dislocation this ammonia although these microorganisms will start to colonise the filter since ammonia exists.

If nothing is done to avoid it this ammonia can harm as well as cause the dying of the fish.

Ammonia poisoning:

The fish can become listless
Gasp at the surface
Grow reddish blotches in their fins
Bleed from the gills
Eventual death

A difference will be made by The pH of the water if ammonia exists because ammonia becomes more hazardous as the pH increases. If ammonia is current you can find two courses of action which may aid, Make a water change to lessen the ammonia to no more than 0.2 ppm and occasionally examine the water and make more modifications if it increases again and second include an item to the water such as AmmoLock which will decrease the accumulation of the ammonia but the ammonia will nevertheless display on water assessments.

The fishes blood is prevented by nitrite poisoning nitrite from transporting oxygen, this results in:

Sleepiness
Tissue harm from what seems like bruising to ulcers
the fish may be really pressured and this may result in supplementary infections such as whitespot.
Including a little number of sodium can help protect the fish from nitrite poisoning there was a calculator here to share with you just how much salt will want adding, it’s important that you do not overdose the salt because adding more will not help and could do damage.

As with ammonia make the required water changes to maintain the amount of nitrite below 0.2ppm and keep it there.

Including water from the mature tank may do little if anything to assist since the bacteria which are needed colonise surfaces instead of the water line. seven, Use an ammonia locking agent such as AmmoLock if ammonia occurs or sodium utilizing the calculator on this website if nitrite is present and remember to include one of those to any fresh water when creating water changes.